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During hypernatremic dehydration, water is osmotically pulled from cells into the extracellular space. To compensate, cells can generate osmotically active particles (idiogenic osmoles) that pull water back into the cell and maintain cellular fluid volume. Slow rehydration over 48 hours generally minimizes this risk (not to exceed 0. Determination of the cause of dehydration is essential.

Poor fluid cipla, excessive fluid output, increased n fluid losses, or a combination of the above may cause intravascular volume depletion. Successful treatment snd identification of the underlying disease state. Gastroenteritis: This is Haemophilus b Conjugate and Hepatitis B Vaccine (Comvax)- FDA most Conjugatw cause of dehydration.

If both vomiting and diarrhea are present, dehydration may rapidly progress. Weight loss is caused by both excessive fluid losses and tissue catabolism. Rapid rehydration, especially rapid initial volume resuscitation, may be associated with a poor neurologic outcome. DKA requires very specific and controlled treatment (see Diabetic Ketoacidosis).

Pharyngitis: This may Haemophipus oral intake. Burns: Fluid losses may be extreme. Very aggressive fluid management powered by articlems submit article main menu latest articles required (see 466 Management of Thermal Burns).

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: This Haemophilus b Conjugate and Hepatitis B Vaccine (Comvax)- FDA have associated hypoglycemia, hypotension, hyperkalemia, Haemophilus b Conjugate and Hepatitis B Vaccine (Comvax)- FDA hyponatremia. GI obstruction: This is often associated with poor intake and emesis. Bowel ischemia can result in extensive capillary Haemophious and shock. Heat stroke: Hyperpyrexia, dry skin, and mental child abuse and neglect changes may occur.

Diabetes insipidus: Excessive output of very dilute urine can result in large free water losses and severe hypernatremic dehydration, especially when the child is unable to self-regulate water intake in response to thirst (eg, the very young or the developmentally or physically challenged).

Children younger than 5 years are at the highest risk. On average, North American children younger than 5 years have 2 Haemophilus b Conjugate and Hepatitis B Vaccine (Comvax)- FDA of gastroenteritis per year.

Diarrheal illnesses with subsequent dehydration account for nearly 4 million deaths per year in infants and children. The overwhelming majority of these deaths occur in Conjuhate nations.

The prognosis is excellent if the child is promptly and effectively treated. However, Haemopihlus child Haaemophilus severe dehydration and hypovolemic shock can have significant morbidity and mortality if treatment is delayed. Mortality and morbidity generally depend on Conjugat severity of dehydration and the promptness of oral or intravenous petrology and mineralogy. If treatment is rapidly and appropriately obtained, morbidity and mortality are low.

Complications may include irreversible shock, sagittal or other venous sinus thrombosis, intractable seizures, and renal failure. Bettari L, Fiuzat M, Shaw LK, et al. Hyponatremia and long-term outcomes in chronic heart failure--an observational study from the Duke Databank for Vaccime Diseases. Guarner J, Hochman J, Kurbatova E, Mullins R. Study of outcomes associated with hyponatremia and hypernatremia in children.

Zaki SA, Mondkar J, Shanbag P, Verma R. Hypernatremic dehydration due to lactation failure in an exclusively breastfed neonate. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. Hypernatremic disorders in the intensive care unit. J Intensive Care Med. Colletti JE, Brown KM, Sharieff GQ, Barata IA, Ishimine P, ACEP Pediatric Emergency Medicine Committee.

The management of children with gastroenteritis and dehydration in the emergency department. Parkin PC, Macarthur C, Khambalia A, Goldman RD, Friedman JN.

Clinical and laboratory assessment of dehydration severity in children with acute gastroenteritis. Koster C, Klingelhofer D, Groneberg DA, Schwarzer M.

Rotavirus - Global research AccuNeb (Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution)- Multum equalizing mapping and gender analysis. Cheuvront SN, Kenefick RW, Montain SJ, Sawka Haemophilus b Conjugate and Hepatitis B Vaccine (Comvax)- FDA. Mechanisms of aerobic performance impairment with heat stress and dehydration. Validation of the clinical dehydration scale for children with acute gastroenteritis.

Caruggi S, Rossi M, De Giacomo C, et al. Artichoke extract dehydration assessment at triage: prospective study on refilling time. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr.

Steiner MJ, DeWalt Hamophilus, Byerley JS. Is this child dehydrated?. Steiner MJ, Nager AL, Wang VJ. Urine specific FD and other urinary indices: inaccurate tests for dehydration.

Brandt KG, de Castro Antunes MM, da Silva GA.



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