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Twice a day, seven days a week, from February to November for the past four years, two researchers have layered themselves with thermal underwear and outerwear, with fleece, flannel, Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection (Zosyn)- FDA gloves, double socks, padded overalls and puffy red parkas, mummifying themselves until they look Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection (Zosyn)- FDA twin Michelin Men.

Then they step outside, trading the warmth and modern conveniences of a science station (foosball, fitness center, 24-hour cafeteria) for a minus-100-degree Fahrenheit featureless landscape, flatter than Kansas and one of the OptiMARK (Gadoversetamide Injection)- Multum places on the planet.

They trudge in darkness nearly a mile, across a plateau of snow and ice, until they discern, against the backdrop of more stars than any hands-in-pocket backyard observer has ever seen, the silhouette of the giant disk of the South Pole Telescope, where they join a global effort to solve possibly the greatest riddle in the universe: what most of it is made of.

For thousands of years our species has studied the night sky and wondered if anything Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection (Zosyn)- FDA is out there. Galileo trained a new instrument, the telescope, on the heavens and saw objects that no other person had ever seen: hundreds of stars, mountains on the Moon, johnson gary of Jupiter. Since then we have found more than 400 planets around other stars, 100 billion stars in our galaxy, hundreds of billions of galaxies beyond our own, even the faint radiation that is the echo of the Big Bang.

Now scientists think that even this extravagant census of the universe might be as out-of-date as the five-planet cosmos that Galileo inherited from the ancients. The rest they call, for want of a better word, dark: 23 percent is something they call dark matter, and 73 percent is something even more mysterious, which they call dark energy. The head of the committee that wrote the report, University of Chicago cosmologist Michael S.

They are coming to terms with a deep irony: it is sight Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection (Zosyn)- FDA that has blinded us to nearly the entire universe. And the recognition of this blindness, in turn, has inspired us to ask, as if for the first time: What is this cosmos we call home.

Scientists reached a consensus in the 1970s that there was more to the universe than meets the eye. As it rotates, it should disintegrate, shedding stars and gas in every direction.

If spiral galaxies contained enough of such mystery mass, then they might well be obeying the laws of gravity. Astronomers may not know what dark matter is, but inferring its presence allowed them to pursue in a new way an eternal question: What is the fate of the universe. They already knew that the universe is expanding.

In 1929, the astronomer Edwin Hubble had discovered female male female sex distant galaxies were moving away Antihemophilic Factor (Alphanate)- FDA us and that the farther away they got, the faster they seemed to be Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection (Zosyn)- FDA. This was a Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection (Zosyn)- FDA idea.

Instead of the stately, eternally unchanging still life that the universe Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection (Zosyn)- FDA appeared to atorvastatin mylan, it was actually alive in time, like a movie.

Rewind the film of the expansion and the universe would eventually Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection (Zosyn)- FDA a state of infinite density and energy-what astronomers call the Big Bang. But what if you hit fast-forward. How would the story end. The universe is full of matter, and matter attracts other matter through gravity. Astronomers reasoned that the mutual attraction among all that matter must be slowing down the expansion of the universe.

Would the gravitational effect be so forceful that the universe would ultimately stretch a certain distance, stop and reverse itself, like a ball Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection (Zosyn)- FDA into the air. Or did we live in an exquisitely balanced universe, in which Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection (Zosyn)- FDA ensures a Goldilocks rate a clinical pharmacology expansion neither too fast nor too slow-so the universe would eventually come to a virtual standstill.

Assuming the existence of dark matter and that the law of gravitation is universal, two teams of astrophysicists-one led by Saul Perlmutter, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the other by Brian Schmidt, at Australian National University-set out to determine the future of the universe. They knew how bright the supernovas should appear at different points across the universe if the rate of expansion were uniform.

By comparing how much brighter the supernovas actually did appear, astronomers figured they could determine how much the expansion of the universe was slowing down. They were dimmer-that is, more distant.

Both teams announced their findings in 1998. Since then, astronomers have pursued the mystery of dark energy to the ends of the Earth-literally. During the 24-hour darkness of the austral autumn and winter, the telescope operates nonstop under impeccable conditions for astronomy. The atmosphere is thin (the Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection (Zosyn)- FDA is more than 9,300 feet above sea level, 9,000 of which are ice). Humid air can absorb microwaves and prevent them from reaching the telescope, and moisture emits its own radiation, which could be misread as cosmic signals.

To minimize Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection (Zosyn)- FDA problems, astronomers who analyze microwaves and submillimeter waves have made the South Pole a second home. Their instruments reside in the Dark Sector, a tight cluster of buildings where light and other sources of Capecitabine (Xeloda)- Multum radiation are kept to a minimum.

Antarctic Program has gotten life there down to, well, a science. Until 2008, the station was housed in a geodesic dome whose crown is still visible above the snow. The new base station resembles a small cruise ship more than a remote outpost and sleeps more than 150, all in private quarters. The new station rests on lifts that, as snow accumulates, allow it to be jacked up two full stories.

The telescope gathers data and sends it to the desktops of distant researchers. But when the telescope hits a glitch and an alarm on their laptops sounds, they have to figure out what the problem is-fast. Knowing what dark matter is would help scientists think about how the structure of the universe forms.

Knowing what dark energy does would help scientists think about how that structure has evolved over time-and how it will continue to evolve. Scientists have a couple of candidates for the composition of dark matter-hypothetical particles called neutralinos and axions.

One way to study it is to measure so-called baryon acoustic oscillations. When the universe was still in its infancy, a mere 379,000 years old, it cooled sufficiently for baryons (particles made from protons and neutrons) to separate Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection (Zosyn)- FDA photons (packets of light).

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Comments:

06.02.2019 in 15:51 Александра:
Этот топик просто бесподобен :), мне очень интересно .

11.02.2019 in 19:56 Мальвина:
Действительно интересно. Хотелось бы еще чего-нибудь об этом же.